The atmosfair fairfuel Standard is a quality label for Power-to-Liquid (PtL) – E-kerosene and E-methanol for aviation and the maritime transport sector. E-kerosene is refined from synthetic crude oil into commercially applicable Jet A1, whereby the crude oil is produced through synthesis processes from the feedstocks CO₂ and water using electricity. E-kerosene can be utilized within the existing aviation infrastructure without the need for modifications to the infrastructure or the aircraft. Thus, E-kerosene has the potential to permanently and sufficiently solve the CO₂ problem of aviation for the climate goals of Paris. E-methanol is also produced through synthesis from the feedstocks CO₂ and water using electricity and can be directly used as fuel in the maritime sector. E-methanol possesses similar properties to marine diesel and can be utilized in the existing infrastructure of the maritime transport sector with minor adjustments. In the future, after receiving the corresponding ASTM certification, E-methanol can also be processed into E-kerosene. Both this variant and the utilization of by-products within the refinery processes of E-kerosene are covered by this standard. To harness all these potentials, it requires an integrated deployment of PtL technology from a climate perspective – a task ensured by the atmosfair fairfuel Standard.

In aviation, there remain non-CO₂ emissions, which are only reduced, not eliminated, by E-kerosene. Achieving their elimination in the long run is feasible by optimizing flight routes which falls outside the scope of the fairfuel Standard.

Limitation to Aviation and Maritime Transport Sectors

Due to the high energy consumption involved in the production of PtL products and the initially low production volumes, the atmosfair fairfuel Standard restricts E-fuels to use in aviation (medium- and long-haul flights) and in maritime shipping, as there are no alternative propulsion methods available for these sectors. The use of atmosfair fairfuel in road transportation is excluded.

Main Objective: Decarbonization of Aviation and Maritime Shipping

The atmosfair fairfuel criteria ensure that the potential greenhouse gas reductions from E-Kerosene/E-Methanol are maximally realized – through the use of non-fossil, mostly biological CO₂ sources with residual character. PtL facilities according to the fairfuel Standard must increasingly utilize direct air capture (DAC) facilities to provide CO₂, in order to become completely independent of all biogenic and residual sources in the long term. Additionally, there are requirements for additionality and regional specificity for the renewable electricity sources used, which support the energy transition without competing with it.


Permissible CO₂ sources are non-fossil and have residual character. The sources are classified into four categories (Direct Air Capture, sustainable, conditionally sustainable, not sustainable). The filtration of CO₂ from the air (DAC) is considered the best source. The evaluation of sources also depends on the environmental impact of the upstream process and excludes certain substrates in biogas plants, such as biomass cultivation with maize. When climate-friendly alternatives are available, such as steel production with green hydrogen, the source of coke oven gas is not considered. However, CO₂ from cement production is permitted as a temporary solution in the silver-level of the fairfuel label.

When using CO₂ from fossil sources, a maximum reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of 50% can be achieved, as the CO₂ is now being used at least ‘twice’ compared to the purely fossil status quo (see figure). However, fossil CO₂ is still being emitted into the atmosphere, thus missing the climate goals. On the other hand, a short-term CO₂ cycle can be achieved with DAC or biogenic CO₂, as atmospheric CO₂ is removed through plants or technology and then processed into E-Kerosene. This is the only scenario in which fossil CO₂ is not used for the production of E-kerosene and does not enter the atmosphere. Therefore, the atmosfair fairfuel Standard derives its fairfuel criteria from this scenario.


The power supply for the synthesis plant must not compromise the energy transition and the Paris climate goals, and must not delay the desired decarbonization of the electricity sector. Therefore, for atmosfair fairfuel, the electricity must not only be 100% renewable, but also additional, and must correlate geographically and temporally with generation. To ensure this, the fairfuel Standard adheres to the European requirements for renewable electricity supply for the production of RFNBOs. The “Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2023/1184 of 10 February 2023 supplementing Directive (EU) 2018/2001” specifies these requirements. This ensures that when connected to the grid, the conditions of additionality, as well as temporal and geographical correlation, are guaranteed. Specific requirements can be found in the above-mentioned legal act.

The fairfuel Standard supplements these criteria with additional requirements to ensure the production of E-kerosene/E-methanol is in line with the Paris climate goals.

  • Elimination of the transitional phase in the area of additionality
  • Expansion of the geographical correlation (500 km radius)
  • System serviceability of the PtL facility

For locations outside the EU, the PtL facility operator must also provide electricity to the local population at socially acceptable prices if needed. A list of recognized fairfuel certification bodies can be found here. A list of list of power-to-liquid plants validated according to the atmosfair fairfuel standard can be found here.

Economic viability and feasibility, market rollout

Although the atmosfair criteria require increased effort from plant operators in planning, they do not automatically result in higher costs. On the contrary, costs can decrease in the long term compared to other scenarios, as the availability of CO₂ and electricity as main resources in the fairfuel variant means becoming more independent from external risk factors and ensuring continuous operation of the facility.

In summary, the fairfuel criteria can often be cost-effective. Overall, these criteria do not jeopardize the market ramp-up of PtL Kerosene in the foreseeable future.

Sufficient CO₂ sources available for aviation

The sustainability of PtL requires consideration not only of environmental standards but also of the economic aspect. In addition to the costs mentioned above, it must be ensured that the CO₂ sources permitted under this standard are sufficiently available.

Therefore, atmosfair has determined the CO₂ demand for global aviation for PtL production and compared it with the available quantities from sources of categories A and B (sustainable and conditionally sustainable) of this standard. It turns out that today globally sufficient residual CO₂ sources, with a focus on waste biomass, are available to fully supply global aviation with sustainable PtL. The faster aviation grows in the future, the faster the transition to Direct Air Capture must be made. The atmosfair criteria here combine the necessity from an environmental perspective to quickly transition to DAC with the economic necessity to use sufficiently secure CO₂ sources for the necessary market ramp-up of E-Kerosene or E-Methanol.

Dowload version 1.2 of the atmosfair fairfuel Standard here!